The LORD and the Lord: an interactive online study
Psalm 145:17 The LORD is righteous in all his ways, and holy in all his works.
First Great Statement: Section Praising God 1:1-2:47

First Great Statement: Section Praising God 1:1-2:47

Acts 1:6 When they therefore were come together, they asked of him, saying, Lord, wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom to Israel?

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 1:21 Wherefore of these men which have companied with us all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us,

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 1:24 And they prayed, and said, Thou, LORD, which knowest the hearts of all men*, shew whether of these two thou hast chosen,

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

*This is Jehovah. Our Lord instructed us to pray to God, not to him (Matt. 6:9; Luke 11:2). Secondly, the phrase, "which knowest the hearts of all men" has been used as an epitaph for the Heavenly Father since the Old Testament (Acts 15:7-8, Rom. 8:27, I Kings 8:39; Jer. 17:10.)

Although the Lord knew what was in men, as John 2:24-25, states, it was because God gave all things to him (Matt. 11:27, Luke 10:22). Likewise, although the Lord chose the twelve apostles originally, he did so according to the will of his Father (Luke 6:12-13) after spending the night in prayer. Everything our Lord did, including choosing the twelve apostles, was in accordance with the Father’s will (John 5:19; 8:28-29). After the day of Pentecost, the Author of the choices of the apostles is more plainly revealed (compare Acts 9:15 with Acts 22:14). Likewise, after the Day of Pentecost, in accordance with John 14:12, the apostles began to do the works that our Lord had done in the gospels, and even greater works than these were they able to accomplish by believing his words (Acts 13:1, 2).

 

Acts 2:20 The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before that great and notable day of the LORD (Jehovah: OT phrase 15: Joel 2:28-32) come:

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 2:21 And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the LORD (Jehovah: OT phrase 16: Joel 2:28-32) shall be saved.

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 2:25 For David speaketh concerning him, I foresaw (set –Psalm 16:8) the LORD (Jehovah: Psalm 16:8. Psalm 16:8-11 gives the thoughts of our Lord who set Jehovah on his right hand and who knew that the LORD would raise him from the dead. These thoughts, according to Acts 2:31, David, by revelation, foresaw.) always before my face, for he is on my right hand, that I should not be moved:

Aramaic: my lord

 

Acts 2:34 For David is not ascended into the heavens: but he saith himself, The LORD said unto my Lord (Jehovah: the capitals are in the KJV. This is one of the only times where the translators take a position on kurios as referring to Jehovah. This is plainly Jehovah as in the verse itself and in the reference: Psalm 110:1), Sit thou on my right hand,

Aramaic: 1st LORDempagrees with the Stephens text; 2nd agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 2:36 Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly, that God hath made that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified, both Lord and Christ.

Aramaic: Lordsprm agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 2:39 For the promise is unto you, and to your children, and to all that are afar off, even as many as the LORD our God (Jehovah: OT phrase 6) shall call.

Aramaic: omits Lord

Latin:       agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 2:47 Praising God, and having favour with all the people. And the LORD (Jehovah*) added to the church daily such as should be saved.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

*Latin Vulgate: and the Lord increased daily the gathering of those having salvation. In Nestle-Aland, "for the church" is translated from "epi ton auto", a Greek idiom for together. See also Acts 5:14; 11:24; believers are added by God to our Lord who is the church. Finally, in Acts 2:41:

Then they that gladly received his word were baptized: and the same day there were added unto them about three thousand souls.

is the event that is reflected in the great summary and conclusion statement of Acts 2:47. He who baptizes us into one body is He who adds to the church: I Corinthians 12:13. This baptism, according to Titus 3:5-6, is from God through Jesus Christ.

 

2nd Great Statement 3:1-6:7 Disciples Multiply

Acts 3:19 Repent ye therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out, when the times of refreshing shall come from the presence of the LORD (Jehovah: context of 3:20, "And he [the LORD] shall send Jesus Christ")

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 3:22 For Moses truly said unto the fathers, A prophet shall the LORD your God (Jehovah: OT phrase 5: Deut. 18:15,19) raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me; him shall ye hear in all things whatsoever he shall say unto you.

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text (but omits God)

 

Acts 4:24 And when they heard that, they lifted up their voice to God with one accord, and said, Lord (*despotes—God. New Testament phrase 4.) thou art he (Stephens text includes, thou art God, but N-A,L,T,Tr,Ab,N all replace this phrase with thou art he), which hast made heaven, and earth and the sea, and all that in them is:

Aramaic: LORDemp (not master) thou art God

The Vulgate: replaces thou art God with thou art he

 

*Despotes, here, refers to God. However, this is not a translation or a reference to the Jehovah. Instead, it is a title for God as the Creator of the heavens and earth. This prayer of the believers is addressing God, according to a title that dates back to Genesis, as the sovereign ruler of heaven and earth.

The formation of this title, that here also gives the reason for God being the supreme ruler, is actually interrupted by the addition in the Stephens text of thou art God. The actual Biblical form of this epithet is given in Genesis 14:19, 22 below:

And he blessed him, and said, Blessed be Abram of the most high God, possessor (qanah 7069) of heaven and earth:

And Abram said to the king of Sodom, I have lift up mine hand unto the LORD, the most high God, the possessor (qanah 7069)of heaven and earth,

Since every master is also the lord of the things he or she owns, God is also named the “Lord of heaven and earth.” See also the eighth section of E.W. Bullinger’s Appendix 4 in the Companion Bible.

 

 

Acts 4:26 The kings of the earth stood up, and the rulers were gathered together against the LORD (Jehovah: Psalm 2:2), and against his Christ.

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 4:29 And now, LORD (Jehovah: 4:30: "…against thy Christ"), behold their threatenings: and grant unto thy servants, that with all boldness they may speak thy word,

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 4:33 And with great power gave the apostles witness of the resurrection of the Lord Jesus: and great grace was upon them all.

Aramaic: omits Lord (instead adds Christ)

Latin:       Jesus Christ our Lord

 

Acts 5:9 Then Peter said unto her, How is it that ye have agreed together to tempt the Spirit of the LORD (Jehovah: Old Testament phrase 14a)? behold, the feet of them which have buried thy husband are at the door, and shall carry thee out.

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 5:14 And believers were *the more added to the Lord, multitudes both of men and women.

Aramaic: the number of those who believed in the Lord (Lordsprm) was greatly increased by multitudes both of men and women.

Vulgate: and the multitude of men and women who believed in the Lord was increased.

 

*This is almost a grammatical question. The Latin and Aramaic differ from the Greek virtually by the interpretation of syntax. In the Greek, is it, "and were more added those who believed in" or is it, "and were more added those who believed to the Lord"? In either case, the Lord is our Lord Jesus Christ.

As a whole, the sense of Acts favors the sense in the Greek texts. Acts 5:14 shows the growth of the church, the great addition of believers to the Lord, who is (by metaphor) the church. This has already covered in Acts 2:41 & 47. Additionally, the great summary and concluding statement of this section, in 6:7, that says:

"And the word of God increased; and the number of the disciples multiplied in Jerusalem greatly; and a great company of the priests (Judeans – Aramaic) were obedient to the faith,"

focuses on the multiplication of disciples and Judean believers. Hence, the two Greek words for more added should be understood together to mean multiplication.

 

Acts 5:19 But the angel of the LORD (Jehovah: OT phrase 1) by night opened the prison doors, and brought them forth, and said,

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

3rd Great Statement: Churches Multiply Acts 6:8-9:31

Acts 7:30 And when forty years were expired, there appeared to him in the wilderness of mount Sina an angel of the LORD (Jehovah: OT phrase 1: Exodus 3:3. N-A, G, L, T, Tr, A, N omit of the lord) in a flame of fire in a bush.

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

The Vulgate: omits the Lord

 

Acts 7:31 When Moses saw it, he wondered at the sight: and as he drew near to behold it, the voice of the LORD (Jehovah:  Exodus 3:4) came unto him,

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 7:33 Then said the LORD (Jehovah: Exodus 3:5) to him, Put off thy shoes from thy feet: for the place where thou standest is holy ground.

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 7:37 This is that Moses, which said unto the children of Israel, A prophet shall the LORD your (N-A, G=, L, T, Tr, A, N omit “Lord your”; Hebrew & Septuagint of Deut. 18:15 includes with Lord = Jehovah.) God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me; him shall ye hear.

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 7:49 Heaven is my throne, and earth is my footstool: what house will ye build me? saith the LORD: (Jehovah:  Isaiah 66:1,2) or what is the place of my rest?

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 7:59 And they stoned Stephen, calling upon God (God is in italics in and should be omitted. See NT phrase 3. Stephen is calling out to the Lord Jesus who has revealed himself to Stephen in a vision that the Pharisees could not see.), and saying, Lord Jesus, receive my spirit.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 7:60 And he kneeled down, and cried with a loud voice, Lord (Acts 7:56 begins the context of Stephen's vision of our Lord. As with Paul and Ananias later in Acts, when the Lord shows himself in a vision, believers, as one would expect, speak to him. Acts 7:59 establishes this context.), lay not this sin to their charge. And when he had said this, he fell asleep.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 8:16 (For as yet he was fallen upon none of them: only they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.) See NT phrase 6.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 8:22 Repent therefore of this thy wickedness, and pray God (N-A, G~, L, T, Tr, A, N have kurios for God. If kurios, then Jehovah), if perhaps the thought of thine heart may be forgiven thee.

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

Latin: agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 8:24 Then answered Simon, and said, Pray ye to the LORD* (context of Peter's statement in 8:22, principle: we pray to God) for me, that none of these things which ye have spoken come upon me.

Aramaic:  God

Vulgate: agrees with the Stephens text

 

*Samaria was within Judea, so it is not impossible that Simon, sorcerer or not, would have known the name of the covenant God and, once he believed, been extremely earnest in seeking the LORD’s favor. Nevertheless, since Simon is responding to the correction given by Peter an apostle of the church age, the reading “God” in Acts 8:22 and in 8:24 seems most in keeping with the context.

 

Acts 8:25 And they (Peter and John), when they had testified (diamarturomai) and preached (laleo:  speak, not euaggelizo:  preach) the word of the Lord (If Lord is correct, then this is the word of the Lord, the gospel in the full power of its effect on those who believe and receive: New Testament phrase 2. The Aramaic has God. This may be the correct.*), returned to Jerusalem, and preached (euaggelizo) the gospel in many villages of the Samaritans.

Aramaic:  *God

 

*The Aramaic reading may be correct. Phillip preached (euaggelizo) the gospel in Samaria, the word concerning our Lord Jesus. Then Peter and John came in with specific revelation concerning the walk of the Samaritans as full sharers of the gospel with the Judeans. This revelation and the laying on of hands that was part of seeing God’s promises come to pass for the Samaritans. Rather than the gospel made known to all nations, these things involved the specific words of God concerning the Samaritans. Interestingly, the apostle Paul also completely testifies [diamarturomai] on a subject very similar to the one about which Peter and John charged Simon.

1 Timothy 5:21: I charge (diamarturomai) thee before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, and the elect angels, that thou observe these things without preferring one before another, doing nothing by partiality,

This concludes a section beginning in 5:9 by fully testifying to Timothy about handling the affairs of the ministry, including monetary affairs, without partiality.

 

Acts 8:26 And angel of the LORD (Jehovah: OT phrase 1) spake unto Philip, saying, Arise, and go toward the south unto the way that goeth down from Jerusalem unto Gaza, which is desert.

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 8:39 And when they were come up out of the water, the Spirit of the LORD (Jehovah: OT phrase 1, or Old Testament phrase 14a) caught away Philip, that the eunuch saw him no more: and he went on his way rejoicing.

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 9:1 And Saul, yet breathing out threatenings and slaughter against the disciples of the Lord, went unto the high priest,

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 9:5 And he said, Who art thou, Lord? And the Lord (N-A, G=, L, T, Tr, A, N omit this 2nd Lord) said, I am Jesus whom thou persecutest: it is hard for thee to kick against the pricks.

Aramaic: our Lord

The Vulgate: omits the second Lord

 

Acts 9:6 And he trembling and astonished said, Lord, what wilt thou have me to do? And the Lord said unto him, (Many Greek texts omit) Arise, and go into the city, and it shall be told thee what thou must do.

Aramaic: omits “And…him,”

Vulgate: Agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 9:10 And there was a certain disciple at Damascus, named Ananias; and to him said the Lord in a vision, Ananias. And he said, Behold, I am here, Lord.

Aramaic: 1st Lordsprm agrees with the Stephens text; 2ndmy Lord

 

Acts 9:11 And the Lord said unto him, Arise, and go into the street which is called Straight, and enquire in the house of Judas for one called Saul, of Tarsus: for, behold, he prayeth,

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 9:13 Then Ananias answered, Lord, I have heard by many of this man, how much evil he hath done to thy saints at Jerusalem:

Aramaic: my Lord

 

Acts 9:15 But the Lord said unto him, Go thy way: for he is a chosen vessel unto me, to bear my name before the Gentiles, and kings, and the children of Israel:

Aramaic: Lordsprm agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 9:17 And Ananias went his way, and entered into the house; and putting his hands on him said, Brother Saul, the Lord, even Jesus, that appeared unto thee in the way as thou camest, hath sent me, that thou mightest receive thy sight, and be filled with the Holy Ghost.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 9:27 But Barnabas took him, and brought him to the apostles, and declared unto them how he had seen the Lord in the way, and that he had spoken to him, and how he had preached boldly at Damascus in the name of Jesus.

Aramaic: Lordsprm agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 9:29 And he spake boldly in the name of the Lord Jesus (N-A: omits Jesus), and disputed against the Grecians: but they went about to slay him.

Aramaic: our Lord Jesus

The Latin: omits “boldly in the name of the Lord Jesus”

 

Acts 9:31 Then had the churches rest throughout all Judaea and Galilee and Samaria, and were edified; and walking in the fear of the LORD (Jehovah: OT phrase 17), and in the comfort of the Holy Ghost, were multiplied.

Aramaic:  God

Latin:       agrees with the Stephens text

 

4th Great Statement: God's Hand of Blessing 9:32-11:21

Acts 9:35 And all that dwelt at Lydda and Saron saw him, and turned to the LORD (JehovahOT phrase 18).

Aramaic:  God

Latin:       agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 9:42 And it was known throughout all Joppa; and many believed in the Lord.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 10:4 And when he looked on him, he was afraid, and said, What is it, Lord (sir: referring to the angel)? And he said unto him, Thy prayers and thine alms are come up for a memorial before God.

Aramaic: my Lord

 

Acts 10:14 But Peter said, Not so, Lord; for I have never eaten any thing that is common or unclean.

Aramaic: my Lord

 

Acts 10:33 Immediately therefore I sent to thee; and thou hast well done that thou art come. Now therefore are we all here present before God (Aramaic & Latin has you), to hear all things that are commanded thee of God (N-A, G~, L, T, Tr, A, N has Lord.

Aramaic:  God

Latin:       Lord

 

* If lord is correct, this use is Jehovah because Cornelius, who tithed before the covenant God of the Old Testament, needed Peter to tell him that the Lord, Christ Jesus, had risen. Additionally, Acts 10:44 picks up immediately with God. Because Cornelius feared, reverenced and worshipped God in Acts 10:1, and because he also saw an angel of God, the best reading is God.

 

Acts 10:36 The word which God (He in Aramaic, some Latin editions, and in many Greek texts) sent unto the children of Israel, preaching peace by Jesus Christ: (he is Lord of all:)

Aramaic: Lordsprm agrees with the Stephens text on “Lord of all”*

 

*There are some that teach that “marya,” lord without a pronominal suffix, should, in the Sryiac New Testament, be, indiscriminately, rendered Jehovah. Besides having little and no support from any scholarly lexicon, nor any reference to the traditions of the Eastern Church, this school of translation would, to advance some non-scriptural perspective they hold dear, render this ancient, holy text nonsensical. Jehovah is then name of the covenant God. He is Jehovah to those with whom He has entered into a covenant. In the Old Testament this was the covenant of the law. Today this is the New and Everlasting covenant through the blood of Jesus Christ. The New Covenant is entered into when one accepts Christ Jesus as Lord (Romans 10:9-10 all texts).

 

Acts 10:48 And he commanded them to be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ (N-A, G~, L, T, Tr, N have Jesus Christ; see NT phrase 6). Then prayed they him to tarry certain days.

Aramaic:  our Lord Jesus Christ

The Latin: has Jesus Christ

 

Acts 11:8 But I said, Not so, Lord: for nothing common or unclean hath at any time entered into my mouth.

Aramaic: my Lord

 

Acts 11:16 Then remembered I the word of the Lord (New Testament phrase 2), how that he said, John indeed baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 11:17 Forasmuch then as God gave them the like gift as he did unto us, who believed on the Lord Jesus Christ; what was I, that I could withstand God?

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 11:20 And some of them were men of Cyprus and Cyrene, which, when they were come to Antioch, spake unto the Grecians, preaching the Lord Jesus.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 11:21 And the hand of the LORD (Jehovah – FOS IB) was with them: and a great number believed, and turned unto the LORD (Jehovah: OT phrase 18).

Aramaic: 1st LORDemp 2nd Aramaic: LORDempagrees with the Stephens text

 

5th Great Statement: By Grace 11:22-12:24

Acts 11:23 Who, when he came, and had seen the grace of God, was glad, and exhorted them all, that with purpose of heart they would cleave (prosmeno: 4357: to remain with or upon: to remain within. See Acts 18:53 & I Tim. 1:3) unto the *Lord.

Aramaic:  follow our Lord

Latin:       continue in the Lord

 

*If the Greek word had been proskollao or kollao, then Jehovah would have been the intended sense of this scripture. However, the word translated cleave, prosmeno, is a word that, in its first two uses, pertains to the Lord's committed disciples. See Matt. 15:32 & Mark 8:2.

 

Acts 11:24 For he was a good man, and full of the Holy Ghost and of faith: and much people was added unto the Lord (Lord Jesus Christ, who is the church, is added to).

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 12:7 And, behold, angel of the LORD (Jehovah: OT phrase 1) came upon him, and a light shined in the prison: and he smote Peter on the side, and raised him up, saying, Arise up quickly. And his chains fell off from his hands.

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 12:11 And when Peter was come to himself, he said, Now I know of a surety, that the LORD (Jehovah: OT phrase 1a) hath sent his angel, and hath delivered me out of the hand of Herod, and from all the expectation of the people of the Jews.

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 12:17 But he, beckoning unto them with the hand to hold their peace, declared unto them how the LORD (Jehovah: Acts 12:11) had brought him out of the prison. And he said, Go shew these things unto James, and to the brethren. And he departed, and went into another place.

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 12:23 And immediately angel of the LORD (Jehovah: OT phrase 1) smote him, because he gave not God the glory: and he was eaten of worms, and gave up the ghost.

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 12:24 But the word of God grew and multiplied. (Vatican ms 1209 has the Lord. This reading is incorrect. The growth of the logos in our lives is the word of God, in accordance with the parable of the sower and the seed. The word of, or about, our Lord sounds out, is published, is the power of God.)

Aramaic:  God

  

6th Great Statement: The Family Stands Together 12:25-16:5

Acts 13:2 As they ministered (leitourgeo 3008: to serve in worship, as the priests in the temple) to the LORD (Jehovah*), and fasted, the Holy Ghost (God: they were serving Jehovah and He, God, answered) said, Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them.

Aramaic:  fasting and making supplication to God

 

* The use of Jehovah in an example of Christian worship in the New Testament is extremely unique. If the Aramaic reading is not correct, then the use of Jehovah is part of an allegory that emphasizes the extreme seriousness and importance of prayer with the spirit and the service of those who are full time ministers to the body of Christ. Hebrews, especially, points out the allegorical meaning of the Old Testament tabernacle and priestly offerings. Romans 15:27, Phil. 2:17 and Hebrews 8:6 also indicate the proper application of the Old Testament s truths to this administration of the grace of God. E.W. Bullinger’s note on this verse in his Companion Bible is very helpful.

When we, as a united family, serve the one true God, our Father, we are the body of Christ, God’s temple.  In Acts 13:2 and elsewhere, the allegory of the temple of the body is compared to the Old Testament temple, and those who provide spiritual things for the saints, for instance, the prophets and teachers in Acts 13:1, are compared to the Old Testament priests.  In Acts 13:2 the full time clergy, those with ministries to the church, were serving, leitourgeo, Jehovah. In the Aramaic and in the Greek, the word fasting appears. This word indicates that the context of this verse involves prayerful worship in regards to carrying out the will of the Father. With the prominence of the ministries of prophets whose responsibility it is to call God’s people back to His word, this verse emphasizes the might of intercessory prayer. Intercessory prayer in the New Testament is only spoken of as prayer with the spirit (Romans 8:26). God's answer for God's people was the ministry of Paul and Barnabas.

Luke 1:32; Hebrews, 9:21, 10:11. Our abundant sharing to those who minister spiritual things to us our religious service: II Cor. 9:32; Phil. 2:30, Romans 15:27. Providing spiritual things to the saints is the literal action of priestly service for the New Testament believer: Phil. 2:17, Heb. 8:6. Paul was a minister, a leitourgos, of Jesus Christ rather than of the earthy temple of the Old Testament: Rom. 15:16. Our Lord Jesus Christ is the high priest and leitourgos of the true tabernacle not made with hands: Heb. 8:2.

 

1 Samuel 2:11 And Elkanah went to Ramah to his house. And the child did minister unto the LORD before Eli the priest.

1 Samuel 2:18 But Samuel ministered before the LORD, being a child, girded with a linen ephod.

1 Samuel 3:1 And the child Samuel ministered unto the LORD before Eli. And the word of the LORD was precious in those days; there was no open vision.

 

The use of God’s title as The Holy Spirit here again emphasizes how the believers were serving Jehovah. They were speaking in tongues. "Philippians 3:3: For we are the circumcision, which worshiplatreuo 3000 – God in the spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh." Notice that this use of worship forms a comparison between the Old Testament nation of Israel, the circumcision, and the body of the church today.

 

Acts 13:5 And when they were at Salamis, they preached (kataggello) the word of God in the synagogues of the Jews: and they had also John to their minister.

Aramaic: word of our Lord

Latin:       agrees with the Stephens text

 

*If the Aramaic is correct, then this is the word of the Lord, NT phrase 2.  However, the subject seems to be Paul and Barnabas's manner of entering in rather than the free course and impact of the gospel.

 

Acts 13:10 And said, O full of all subtilty and all mischief, thou child of the devil, thou enemy of all righteousness, wilt thou not cease to pervert the right ways of the LORD (OT phrase 9a)?

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 13:11 And now, behold, the hand of the LORD (JehovahOT phrase 24) is upon thee, and thou shalt be blind, not seeing the sun for a season. And immediately there fell on him a mist and a darkness; and he went about seeking some to lead him by the hand.

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 13:12 Then the deputy, when he saw what was done, believed, being astonished at the *doctrine of the Lord.

Aramaic: Lordsprmagrees with the Stephens text

 

*The doctrine is always either the Lord's (in the gospel's) or the apostles' doctrine (which was received from the Lord and concerned his resurrection). The doctrine that astonished the deputy is the doctrine concerning our resurrected Lord by which, for instance, devil spirits were cast out as in Mark 1:27.

 

Acts 13:44 And the next sabbath day came almost the whole city together to hear the word of God (N-A, G~, L, T, Tr, A, N has the Lord. If the Greek is correct with Lord, then this is the word of the Lord, NT phrase 2, the gospel with its impact).

Aramaic:  God

The Latin texts are divided also.

 

Acts 13:47 For so hath the LORD (Jehovah: Isaiah 49:6: thee = the Lord Jesus Christ) commanded us, saying, I have set thee to be a light of the Gentiles, that thou shouldest be for salvation unto the ends of the earth.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 13:48 And when the Gentiles heard this, they were glad, and glorified the word of the Lord: (If Lord then NT Phrase 2. Westcott and Hort has "God"*) and as many as were ordained to eternal life believed.

Aramaic:  God

The Latin texts are divided also.

 

* This is a challenging verse of scripture, not least of all because the manuscripts don’t all agree on the correct reading. The context begins in 13:44 when the entire city gathered to hear the word of God. Acts 13:47, the immediate context, is about Jehovah’s word to the Lord Jesus Christ about Jehovah’s deliverance, through him, of the Gentiles. Hence, the immediate context is Jehovah’s word about the Lord Jesus Christ.

 

Acts 13:49 And the word of the Lord (NT Phrase 2) was published throughout all the region.

Aramaic: Lordsprmagrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 14:3 Long time therefore abode they speaking boldly in (epi: concerning or about) the Lord which ("that same one" or "who") gave testimony unto the word of his grace (Acts 15:11) and granted signs and wonders to be done by their hands (Romans 15:18).

Aramaic: Lordsprm agrees with the Stephens text (the Aramaic is translated about the Lord)

 

Acts 14:23 And when they had ordained them elders in every church, and had prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord, on (eis) whom they believed (couple of verses that believing is not eis Jesus Christ: John 12:44; 14:1, but Acts 10:43-44, establishes who was believed eis)

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 15:11 But we believe that through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ (NT Phrase 5) we shall be saved, even as they.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 15:17 That the residue of men might seek after the LORD (me—LXX of Amos 9:12), and all the Gentiles, upon whom my name is called, saith the LORD (Jehovah:  Amos 9:11-12), who doeth all these things.

Aramaic: 1st LORDemp 2nd LORDempagrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 15:26 Men that have hazarded their lives for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Aramaic: agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 15:35 Paul also and Barnabas continued in Antioch, teaching and preaching the word of the Lord with many others also. (Revelation, Old Testament phrase 21, is taught only by God through the holy spirit to the mind of the man receiving. Hence, if the Greek is correct, this is the word concerning the Lord, NT Phrase 2.)

Aramaic:  God

Latin: agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 15:36 And some days after Paul said unto Barnabas, Let us go again and visit our brethren in every city where we have preached the word of the Lord (The gospel is preached. Hence this, as with 15:35, is either the word concerning Jesus Christ our Lord, NT Phrase 2, or the word of God), and see how they do.

Aramaic:  God

Latin: agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 15:40 And Paul chose Silas, and departed, being recommended by the brethren unto the grace of God (N-A, G~, L, T, Tr, A, N have the Lord. Scr, Byz, as well as Stephens have God.).

Aramaic:  God

The Latin editions are also divided.

 

7th Great Statement: Grew and Multiplied 16:6-19:20

Acts 16:10 And after he had seen the vision, immediately we endeavoured to go into Macedonia, assuredly gathering that God (Stephens has LORD. N-A, G~, L, T, Tr, A, N have "God"*) had called us for to preach the gospel unto them.

Aramaic: our Lord

Latin: has God

 

*God does the calling. The gifts and calling of God are without repentance (Romans 11:29). Hence, if the Lord, then Jehovah.

 

Acts 16:14 And a certain woman named Lydia, a seller of purple, of the city of Thyatira, which worshipped God, heard us: whose heart the LORD* opened, that she attended unto the things which were spoken of Paul.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

*God opens the doors in the move of the gospel in Acts 14:27; Col. 4:3. By knocking first, the Lord opens the door to every believer’s heart in Revelation 3:20. If this is Jehovah, it is because Lydia’s worship on the Hebrew Sabbath, before she heard the gospel, could only bring her in relationship to the covenant God of the Old Testament.

 

Acts 14:27 And when they were come, and had gathered the church together, they rehearsed all that God had done with them, and how he had opened the door of faith unto the Gentiles.

1 Corinthians 16:9 For a great door and effectual is opened unto me, and there are many adversaries.

2 Corinthians 2:12 Furthermore, when I came to Troas to preach Christ's gospel, and a door was opened unto me of (in, not "of," NT phrase 1; see also notes by the verse) the Lord,

Colossians 4:3 Withal praying also for us, that God would open unto us a door of utterance, to speak the mystery of Christ, for which I am also in bonds:

 

Acts 16:15 And when she was baptized, and her household, she besought us, saying, If ye have judged me to be faithful to the Lord (Faithful in the Lord would be Jesus Christ by way of NT phrase 1, but en exists in no text. This might translate, "to fully believe in the Lord Jesus Christ.") come into my house, and abide there. And she constrained us.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 16:16 And it came to pass, as we went to prayer, a certain damsel possessed with a spirit of divination met us, which brought her masters (lords) much gain by soothsaying:

Aramaic: agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 16:19 And when her masters (lords) saw that the hope of their gains was gone, they caught Paul and Silas, and drew them into the marketplace unto the rulers,

Aramaic: agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 16:30 And brought them out, and said, Sirs, what must I do to be saved?

Aramaic: agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 16:31 And they said, Believe on (in) the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved, and thy house.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 16:32 And they spake unto him the word of (about) the Lord (16:31— NT Phrase 2), and to all that were in his house.

Aramaic: agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 17:24 God that made the world and all things therein, seeing that he is Lord of heaven and earth, (This phrase refers to God, but not as Jehovah. It is given three times in the New Testament: Matt. 11:25, Luke 10:21, and Acts 17:24 and is a possible allusion to Genesis 14:19 & 22. Old Testament Phrase 23. New Testament phrase 4) dwelleth not in temples made with hands;

Aramaic: Lordabs before daleth; agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 17:27 That they should seek God* (Stephens has Lord. N-A, G~, L, T, Tr, A, N have God.), if haply they might feel after him, and find him, though he be not far from every one of us:

Aramaic:  God

Latin:       God

 

*Since this speech is about the unknown god, giving the Old Testament Hebrew name of the covenant God, who is known by His word, doesn't seem to fit. Hence, N-A and the Aramaic are surely correct on the text. Because Acts 15:17 is so similar in sense, the mistaken idea that Paul was citing part of Amos 9:11-12 may have crept in.

 

Acts 18:8 And Crispus, the chief ruler of the synagogue, believed on (in) the Lord with all his house; and many of the Corinthians hearing believed, and were baptized.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 18:9 Then spake the Lord (From the immediate context, 18:8 & 10, and scope of Acts, including the work of Aquila and Pricilla, this is the Lord Jesus Christ who often appeared in visions to his apostle, Paul.) to Paul in the night by a vision, Be not afraid, but speak, and hold not thy peace:

Aramaic: Lordsprmagrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 18:25 This man was instructed in the way of the LORD (JehovahOT phrase 9); and being fervent in the spirit, he spake and taught diligently about Jesus (instead of the things of the Lord: N-A, L,T,TR, A, N has Jesus), knowing only the baptism of John.

Aramaic: 1st LORDempagrees with the Stephens text; 2nd about Jesus

 

Acts 19:5 When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus (NT phrase 6).

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 19:10 And this continued by the space of two years; so that all they which dwelt in Asia heard the word of the Lord (NT Phrase 2) *Jesus, both Jews and Greeks.

Aramaic: omits Jesus, includes Arameans rather than Greeks; Lordsprm

Vulgate: agrees with the Stephens text

           

*Even without Jesus in many Greek texts, the context seems to indicate that the preaching about the Lord Jesus Christ is the subject. Although “the word of the LORD” is an important Old Testament phrase (see 21 and 21a), here the context is conclusive. The specific revelation from the covenant God is not the topic, nor are His commandments as recorded in the Old Testament.

 

Acts 19:13 Then certain of the vagabond Jews, exorcists, took upon them to call over them which had evil spirits the name of the Lord Jesus, saying, We adjure you by Jesus whom Paul preacheth.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 19:17 And this was known to all the Jews and Greeks also dwelling at Ephesus; and fear fell on them all, and the name of the Lord Jesus was magnified.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 19:20 So mightily grew the word of God and prevailed. (kurios: N-A, St, E, G, L, T, Tr, A. A number of the texts have, "so mightily grew the word of the Lord” while others have, “so mightily grew the Lord of the word.”)

Aramaic: grew the great power of the faith of God

Vulgate: grew the word of God and was confirmed

 

The scope of the book of Acts, the remoter context of the sower and the seed, and the disagreement among the Greek texts that include the reading kurios are factors that favor the reading in the King James. It is interesting that the King James chose the word of God as a translation since this is not the reading in the Stephens critical Greek text. A few Greek minuscules, the Vulgate, and some Old Coptic manuscripts have the word of God.

 

8th Great Statement: A New Beginning 19:21-28:31

Acts 20:19 *Serving (douleuo: slaving for) the Lord with all humility of mind, and with many tears, and temptations, which befell me by the lying in wait of the Jews:

 

*Everywhere, except for I Thessalonians 1:9, we serve, as bonded slaves, the Lord Jesus Christ. In I Thessalonians 1:9 douleuo is means worship. This is not the case here in 20:19. As in Ephesians 4:1, Paul is beseeching them by his own dedication and service to follow his example.

Aramaic:  God

Vulgate: agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 20:21 Testifying both to the Jews, and also to the Greeks, repentance toward God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ.

Aramaic: agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 20:24 But none of these things move me, neither count I my life dear unto myself, so that I might finish my course with joy, and the ministry, which I have received of the Lord Jesus, to testify the gospel of the grace of God.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 20:35 I have shewed you all things, how that so labouring ye ought to support the weak, and to remember the words of the Lord Jesus, how he said, It is more blessed to give than to receive.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 21:13 Then Paul answered, What mean ye to weep and to break mine heart? for I am ready not to be bound only, but also to die at Jerusalem for the name of the Lord Jesus.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 21:14 And when he would not be persuaded, we ceased, saying, The will of the LORD be done. (Nowhere in the Bible is the “will of our Lord Jesus Christ” mentioned. His meat was to do the will of the Father: John 4:34. However, "the will of the LORD" meaning Jehovah appears in James 4:15.)

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 21:20 And when they heard it, they glorified God (Stephens has the Lord. N-A G, L,T, Tr, A, N has God), and said unto him, Thou seest, brother, how many thousands of Jews there are which believe; and they are all zealous of the law.

Aramaic:  God

Latin:       God

 

Acts 22:8 And I answered, Who art thou, Lord? And he said unto me, I am Jesus of Nazareth, whom thou persecutest.

Aramaic: my Lord

 

Acts 22:10 And I said, What shall I do, Lord? And the Lord said unto me, Arise, and go into Damascus; and there it shall be told thee of all things which are appointed for thee to do.

Aramaic: my Lord

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 22:16 And now why tarriest thou? arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, calling on his name. (KJV has “calling on the name of the Lord.” However, N-A, G,L,T, Tr, A, N, GNT, WHO, the Aramaic, and the Latin Vulgate all have calling on his name.*)

Aramaic:  his name.

Latin:       his name.

 

*Joel 2:25-28 talks of how all who called on the name of Jehovah would be saved because of the deliverance in Zion. The use of "his" in 22:17 refers to the Lord Jesus Christ. See NT phrase 3. Making a legal appeal to Jesus Christ as lord is how Ananias tells Paul to be baptized and wash away his sins in Acts 9:18. Ananias did not baptize Paul. Instead, Ananias instructs Paul to be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ, even as Peter instructed men and women in Acts 2:38.

 

Acts 22:19 And I said, Lord, they know that I imprisoned and beat in every synagogue them that believed on thee:

Aramaic: my Lord

 

Acts 23:11 And the night following the Lord stood by him, and said, Be of good cheer, Paul: for as thou hast testified of me in Jerusalem, so must thou bear witness also at Rome.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Acts 25:26 Of whom I have no certain thing to write unto my lord. Wherefore I have brought him forth before you, and specially before thee, O king Agrippa, that, after examination had, I might have somewhat to write.

Aramaic:  omits Lord (has concerning him to Caesar)

Latin:       agrees with the Stephens text

 

Acts 26:15 And I said, Who art thou, Lord? And he (Aramaic: our lord; Latin: the Lord) said, I am Jesus (Aramaic and some Latin manuscripts add: the Nazarene) whom thou persecutest.

Aramaic: my Lord

 

Acts 28:31 Preaching the kingdom of God, and teaching those things which concern the Lord Jesus Christ, with all confidence, no man forbidding him.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Romans 1:4 And declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead: ("Jesus Christ the Lord" adds N-A & the Vulgate).

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Romans 1:7 To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Romans 4:8 Blessed is the man to whom the LORD (Jehovah – Psalm 32:1-2) will not impute sin.

Aramaic:  God

Latin:       agrees with the Stephens text

 

Romans 4:24 But for us also, to whom it shall be imputed, if we believe on him that raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead;

Aramaic: our Lord (The Aramaic also adds Christ)

Latin:       also adds Christ

 

Romans 5:1 Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ:

Aramaic: agrees with the Stephens text

 

Romans 5:11 And not only so, but we also joy in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received the atonement.

Aramaic: agrees with the Stephens text

 

Romans 5:21 That as sin hath reigned unto death, even so might grace reign through righteousness unto eternal life by Jesus Christ our Lord.

Aramaic: agrees with the Stephens text

 

Romans 6:11 Likewise reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord (N-A, G,L,T,Tr, A, N omit our Lord).

Aramaic:  agrees with the Stephens text

Latin:       agrees with Stephens

 

Romans 6:23 For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.

Aramaic: agrees with the Stephens text

 

Romans 7:25 I thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord. So then with the mind I myself serve the law of God; but with the flesh the law of sin.

Aramaic: agrees with the Stephens text

 

Romans 8:39 Nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.

Aramaic: agrees with the Stephens text

 

Romans 9:28 For he will finish the work, and cut it short in righteousness: because a short work will the LORD* make upon the earth.

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

*This quotation, which begins with Romans 9:27, matches the Greek Septuagint of Isaiah 10:22-23 almost exactly. Where Romans and the Septuagint have a short work, the Hebrew has consumption. The clause with the word righteousness is in a different place in the Hebrew of Isaiah 10:22-23 than in the Greek.  Still, the two verses say about the same thing about the restoration of Israel after the time when the light of Israel shall be for a fire and the Holy One of Israel shall be for a flame (Is. 10:17). The work of the light of Israel and His Holy One will be accomplished in a day.

There are ancient fragments from the Dead Sea scrolls that show either the Hebrew Tetragammaton or KY with a bar to indicate the sacred name of Jehovah in the Greek Old Testament. However, the great majority of the Septuagint texts in extant simply use the Greek word kurios to indicate Jehovah. The Septuagint’s Greek, then, like the New Testament Greek, is not authoritative as to whether the Father intended His Old Testament title Jehovah. The Hebrew of Is. 10:23 uses the phrase the Adonay Jehovah Sabaoth (see OT phrase 19). The context of the verse is Jehovah, and the phrase adonay of hosts (sabaoth) never occurs.

 

Romans 9:29 And as Esaias said before, Except the LORD of Sabaoth (Isaiah 1:9; OT phrase 19: the Jehovah of Hosts) had left us a seed, we had been as Sodoma, and been made like unto Gomorrha.

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

Romans 10:9 That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Romans 10:12 For there is no difference between the Jew and the Greek: for the same Lord* over all is rich unto all that call upon him. See NT phrase 3.

Aramaic:  the lord of all of them. Lordsprm

 

*The Greek translated, "lord over all", is "lord of all". This is virtually the same language used in Acts 10:36 –"he is lord of all". Romans 10:11, He that believeth on him, is a quote from Isaiah. The him refers to the foundation stone, the stumbling block: Christ. Hence, the context is directly focused on the Messiah who is become head of the corner. Whether men accept him or not, to him every knee will bend:  Phil. 2:10.

 

Romans 10:13 For whosoever shall call upon the name of the LORD* (Jehovah: OT phrase 16, Joel 2:32) shall be saved.

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

*A careful reading of Joel 2:28-35 shows that the reason all who call upon Jehovah shall be saved is because of the deliverance, or deliverer in Zion, because of our Lord Jesus Christ. Hence, 10:13 is evidence for 10:12. See also: NT phrase 3.

 

Romans 10:14 How then shall they call on (appeal to, towards – with eis: verb subjunctive aorist middle 3rd person plural) him (the Lord Jesus Christ: NT phrase 3) in whom they have not believed? and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher?

 

Romans 10:16 But they have not all obeyed the gospel. For Esaias saith, LORD (Jehovah: Is. 53:1), who hath believed our report?

Aramaic: my lord

 

Romans 11:3 LORD (Jehovah: I Kings 19:10), they have killed thy prophets, and digged down thine altars; and I am left alone, and they seek my life.

Aramaic: my lord

 

Romans 11:34 For who hath known the mind of the LORD (Jehovah: Isa. 40:13)? or who hath been his counsellor?

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

Romans 12:11 Not slothful in business; fervent in spirit; serving the Lord;

Aramaic: your Lord

 

Romans 12:19 Dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath: for it is written, Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the LORD (Deut. 32:35).

Aramaic:  God

Latin:       agrees with the Stephens text

 

Romans 13:14 But put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh, to fulfil the lusts thereof.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Romans 14:4 Who art thou that judgest another man's servant? to his own master (lord) he standeth or falleth. Yea, he shall be holden up: for *God (N-A, L, T, Tr, A, N have: the Lord. The Vulgate has God. If the Lord, then Lord Jesus Christ: Romans 8:37, Philippians 4:13 and Ephesians 6:10-11) is able to make him stand.

Aramaic: 1st his lord, adds: to his own lord he falleth, *2nd his lord

 

Romans 14:6 He that regardeth the day, regardeth it unto the Lord (context of 14:8 & 4 shows our Lord is the subject of this verse); and he that regardeth not the day, to the Lord he doth not regard it. He that eateth, eateth to the Lord, for he giveth God thanks; and he that eateth not, to the Lord he eateth not, and giveth God thanks.

Aramaic: 1st his Lord, 2nd his Lord, 3rd his lord, 4th his lord

 

Romans 14:8 For whether we live, we live unto the Lord; and whether we die, we die unto the Lord: whether we live therefore, or die, we are the Lord's.

Aramaic: 1st our Lord, 2nd our Lord, 3rd our Lord

 

Romans 14:11 For it is written, As I live, saith the LORD (Jehovah:  Isa. 45:23), every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall confess to God.

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

Romans 14:14 I know, and am persuaded by (en- in)  the Lord Jesus (NT Phrase 1), that there is nothing unclean of itself: but to him that esteemeth any thing to be unclean, to him it is unclean.

Aramaic: Lordsprmagrees with the Stephens text

 

Romans 15:6 That ye may with one mind and one mouth glorify God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Aramaic: agrees with the Stephens text

 

Romans 15:11 And again, Praise the LORD (Psalm 117:1), all ye Gentiles; and laud him, all ye people.

Aramaic: LORDemp agrees with the Stephens text

 

Romans 15:30 Now I beseech you, brethren, for the Lord Jesus Christ's sake, and for the love of the Spirit, that ye strive together with me in your prayers to God for me;

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Romans 16:2 That ye receive her in the Lord (NT Phrase 1), as becometh saints, and that ye assist her in whatsoever business she hath need of you: for she hath been a succourer of many, and of myself also.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Romans 16:8 Greet Amplias my beloved in the Lord (NT Phrase 1).

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Romans 16:11 Salute Herodion my kinsman. Greet them that be of the household of Narcissus, which are in the Lord (NT Phrase 1).

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Romans 16:12 Salute Tryphena and Tryphosa, who labour in the Lord (NT Phrase 1). Salute the beloved Persis, which laboured much in the Lord (NT Phrase 1).

Aramaic: 1st our Lord, 2nd our Lord

 

Romans 16:13 Salute Rufus chosen in the Lord (NT Phrase 1), and his mother and mine.

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Romans 16:18 For they that are such serve not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly; and by good words and fair speeches deceive the hearts of the simple.

Aramaic: agrees with the Stephens text

 

Romans 16:20 And the God of peace shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you (NT Phrase 5). Amen.

Aramaic: agrees with the Stephens text

 

Romans 16:22 I Tertius, who wrote this epistle, salute you in the Lord (NT Phrase 1).

Aramaic: our Lord

 

Romans 16:24 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all (NT Phrase 5). Amen.

Aramaic: agrees with the Stephens text