The LORD and the Lord: an interactive online study
Psalm 145:17 The LORD is righteous in all his ways, and holy in all his works.

Hebrews 1:10 And, Thou, Lord (Psalm 102:24-25: this quote echoes the Septuagint Greek, but the sense from the Hebrew would mea

Hebrews 1:10 And, Thou, LORD (Psalm 102:24-25: this quote echoes the Septuagint Greek, but the sense from the Hebrew would mean that the S. Greek would refer to Jehovah if that reading reflected the original God-breathed scripture), in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of thine hands:

Aramaic: omits                                                             Greek: no article (vocative)

Latin:      agrees with the Stephens text


Hebrews 2:3 How shall we escape, if we neglect so great salvation; which at the first began to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed unto us by them that heard him;

Aramaic: our Lord                                                        Greek: article


Hebrews 7:14 For it is evident that our Lord sprang out of Juda; of which tribe Moses spake nothing concerning priesthood.

Aramaic: our Lord                                                        Greek: article


Hebrews 7:21 (For those priests were made without an oath; but this with an oath by him that said unto him, The LORD (Jehovah: Psalm 110:4) sware and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec:)

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                        Greek: no article


Hebrews 8:2 A minister of the sanctuary, and of the true tabernacle, which the LORD pitched (Jehovah: I Chronicles 16:26; Psalm 104:2; Isa. 40:22), and not man.

Aramaic: God                                                               Greek: article   


Hebrews 8:8 For finding fault with them, he saith, Behold, the days come, saith the LORD (Jehovah: Jeremiah 38:31-34), when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah:

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                        Greek: no article


Hebrews 8:9 Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt; because they continued not in my covenant, and I regarded them not, saith the LORD (Jehovah: Jeremiah 38:31-34).

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                        Greek: no article


Hebrews 8:10 For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the LORD (Jehovah: Jeremiah 38:31-34); I will put my laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts: and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people:

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                         Greek: no article


Hebrews 8:11 And they shall not teach every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the LORD (Jehovah: Jeremiah 38:31-34): for all shall know me, from the least to the greatest.

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                        Greek: article (as in LXX)

                                                                                    Hebrew OT: (Jehovah with Heb. D.O. marker)


Hebrews 10:16 This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, saith the LORD (Jehovah: Jeremiah 38:31-34), I will put my laws into their hearts, and in their minds will I write them;

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                        Greek: no article


Hebrews 10:30 For we know him that hath said, Vengeance belongeth unto me, I will recompense, saith the LORD (Jehovah: De 32:35-36. N-A,G=,T,Tr,N omit saith the Lord.). And again, The LORD (Jehovah: De 32:35-36) shall judge his people.

1st Aramaic: omits “says the Lord”                               no article (where Lord)

2nd Aramaic: LORDemp,                                                  no article

Latin: 1st omits “says the Lord”; 2nd agrees with the Stephens text


Hebrews 12:5 And ye have forgotten the exhortation which speaketh unto you as unto children, My son, despise not thou the chastening of the LORD (Jehovah: Prov. 3:11), nor faint when thou art rebuked of him:

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                         Greek: no article


Hebrews 12:6 For whom the LORD (Jehovah: Proverbs 3:12; context of 12:5 and sons. God is also in the context in 12:7) loveth he chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom he receiveth.

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                        Greek: no article


Hebrews 12:14 Follow peace with all men, and holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord:*

Aramaic: our Lord                                                        Greek: article

Latin:      God


*Jan Magiera’s fine translation of this verse: “Run after peace with everyone and after holiness, without which a man does not see our Lord,” is exactly right. Hebrews 12:14 refers to fellowship, a believer’s walk with the Father. Although the Greek word translated “see” can refer to physical sight (see I John 4:20) it is also often translated as “behold” (see Matt. 1:20) and can refer to beholding or understanding the character of our lord in our walk (see I John 3:6 and, especially, III John 1:11).


Hebrews 13:6 So that we may boldly say, The LORD (Jehovah: Psalm 118:6: this verse agrees even more closely with LXX Greek) is my helper, and I will not fear what man shall do unto me.

Aramaic: my Lord                                                        Greek: no article


Hebrews 13:20 Now the God of peace, that brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting covenant,

Aramaic: our Lord                                                        Greek: article


James 1:1 James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to the twelve tribes which are scattered abroad, greeting.

Aramaic: our Lord                                                        Greek: no article

Latin:      our Lord


James 1:7 For let not that man think that he shall receive any thing of the LORD (Jehovah: the context of James 1:5 is even more obvious in the Greek. James. 1:5 reads para God, I:7 reads para the Lord).

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                        Greek: article


James 1:12 Blessed is the man that endureth temptation: for when he is tried, he shall receive the crown of life, which the Lord (N-A, G:, L,T,Tr,A,N elliptical he for the Lord*) hath promised to them that love him.

Aramaic: God syrh (Harklean) LORDemp                           Greek:  Stephens article with K L P and most

Latin:      God                                                               minuscules; no article: C, min. 1829, lect. 680)


*If the Stephens text is correct then this is the Lord Jesus Christ. The Harklean Syriac Bible was a seventh century translation from the Greek manuscripts. Hence, it testifies of the significant Greek manuscripts (K, L, and P) relied on by the Stephens text. However, while three significant manuscripts include “the Lord,” many of the Greek manuscripts omit “Lord” all together, making this verse elliptical. In these texts even “he” is supplied. With the ellipsis it would read:

Blessed is the man that endureth temptation: for when he is tried, he shall receive the crown of life... promised to them that love him.

The sequence of participles in the Greek draws a picture of the moment of time in which the faithful man is blessed “from beside the LORD” (see James 1:5-7 above). In accordance with their understanding, the Latin and Aramaic translators may well have supplied the ellipsis for clarity.

If the elliptical quality of the Greek is correct, then we are to search the context and the scope for the complete understanding of this moment in which the blessed man receives rewards. If we understand the scope and allow all the verses on the same subject to speak as one, it is the Father’s promise of the blessing received from he who is at His right hand, that is, from our Lord Jesus Christ. 

All of the scriptures on this subject fit, of themselves, into numerical packages (see Bullinger's Number in scripture) in accordance with the administrations of the kingdom of heaven, grace, and the kingdom fulfilled, or the second coming. These packages are so perfect that they reveal the hand of the Father in sending of the truth of His word. In the kingdom of heaven there are four uses of crown (Matthew 27:29; Mark 15:17; John 19:2, 5) signifying the world as the source of our Lord's crown of thorns. He received from the world a crown of thorns so he might reward us with crowns of grace. In Revelation 14:14, there a fifth mention of a crown for the Lord. This singular mention of our Lord's crown signifies God as the source of his authority to give final judgment to the world: However, the crowning, the coronation he has received from God, the crown of glory and honor, is mentioned twice (Hebrews 2:7, 9) for this authority is established forever.

In the grace administration there are seven uses of Stephen's name, which means crown (Acts 6: 5, 8, 9; 7:59; 8:2; 11:19; 22:20). Stephen is the spiritually perfect example of how each and every believer can receive all the rewards in glory. There are five uses (signifying grace) of stephanos, or crown, to represent five categories of eternal rewards for those who remain faithful. All of the rewards a believer receives are of grace by believing the truth of the gospel. These rewards are received at the bema, or judgment seat of Christ. These five crowns are:

1.       1 Corinthians 9:25: an incorruptible crown for the self control, the temperance, to remain in fellowship, for overcoming internal pressures with the word

2.       1 Thessalonians 2:19: the crown of rejoicing for winning others to Christ

3.       2 Timothy 4:8: the crown of righteousness for those who live for his return, who love his appearing

4.       James 1:12: the crown of life for overcoming external pressures with his word

5.       1 Peter 5:4: the crown of glory for faithfully caring for the flock of God, by feeding them the truth of God's word.

Three crowns correspond to living according to our perfect standing in Christ. One crown corresponds to carrying out our ministry of reconciliation (II Cor. 5:20). The fifth crown corresponds to the work of the ministry (Ephesians 4). Three times (signifying completeness: 2 Timothy 4:8, James 1:12: implied, 1 Peter 5:4) the church is told that the crowns are received from our Lord Jesus Christ. These are the rewards given at the bema, the judgment seat of Christ, the awards platform of eternity (Romans 14:10; II Corinthians 5:10).

One use of stephanos in the age of grace is Philippians 4:1 is a term of endearment, of Paul’s great love for the saints. Philippians 4:1 is an indirect reference to eternal rewards; it is an hendiadys. My joy and crown means my crowning joy. Paul so lived the hope that, instead of physical children, believers who had been born again under his ministry were his glory and his crown. The crown of rewards in this category are not only joy but rejoicing, joy over and over again. Paul's crowning joy is mentioned only once signifying, as the source, God’s abundant grace, for it is He who adds to the church and Who causes His word to grow.

In the administration of the wrath of God, when the world is judged, there are four (signifying the world) pairs (two shows an established purpose of God) of staphanos uses:

1.       The crown of life promised and warning concerning: twice (Rev. 2:10; 3:11)

2.       Gold crowns of glory and honor offered to the Creator: twice (Rev. 4:4, 10)

3.       Crowns of worldly authority given to destroyers: twice (Rev. 6:2; 9:7)

4.       The crowns of Godly authority: twice

·         Christ as the glory of Israel on Mary's head (Rev. 12:1)

·         The Lord's crown of glorious judgment (Rev. 14:14)

Combined, these four pairs comprise eight uses signifying the new beginning that follows the judgment of this world.


James 2:1 My brethren, have not the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Lord of glory, with respect of persons.

Aramaic: “our lord”                                                     Greek: article


James 3:9 Therewith bless we God (N-A, G~,L,T,Tr, A, N have the Lord. The Latin editions are also split. If the Lord, then Jehovah. However, this extremely unconventional formulation with lord is surely inaccurate. The Stephens text appears to be correct.), even the Father; and therewith curse we men, which are made after the similitude of God.

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                         Greek: article (where Lord)

Latin: are split


James 4:10 Humble yourselves in the sight of the LORD (Jehovah: OT phrase 5, context of 4:8, 1Pe 5:6), and he shall lift you up.

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                         Greek: N/A no article; Stephens: article


James 4:15 For that ye ought to say, If the LORD will, we shall live, and do this, or that (The context flows from James 4:1 This passage calls the believers to "God" in 4:4, 7, 10 (Jehovah), 15 (Jehovah). James concerns the state of the Hebrew believer. The standing of the believer is permanent. The exercise of the standing of sons unto fellowship with God is as a believer chooses to be a doer of God's Word.)

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                         Greek: article


James 5:4 Behold, the hire of the labourers who have reaped down your fields, which is of you kept back by fraud, crieth: and the cries of them which have reaped are entered into the ears of the LORD of Sabaoth (Jehovah of Hosts: OT phrase 19).

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                         Greek: no article


James 5:7 Be patient therefore, brethren, unto the coming of the Lord. Behold, the husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit of the earth, and hath long patience for it, until he receive the early and latter rain.

Aramaic: LORDsprm                                                        Greek: article


James 5:8 Be ye also patient; stablish your hearts: for the coming of the Lord draweth nigh.

Aramaic: our Lord                                                        Greek: article


James 5:10 Take, my brethren, the prophets, who have spoken in the name of the LORD (Jehovah: OT phrase 8, see Jer. 26:20 as an example) for an example of suffering affliction, and of patience.

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                         Greek: no article


James 5:11 Behold, we count them happy which endure. Ye have heard of the patience of Job, and have seen the end of the LORD (context is book of Job); that the LORD (G= omits) is very pitiful, and of tender mercy.

1st   Aramaic: LORDemp                                                  Greek: no article

2nd Aramaic: LORDemp                                                                                                     Greek: article

Latin: 1st and 2nd agrees with the Stephen's text


James 5:14 Is any sick among you? let him call for the elders of the church; and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the *LORD (Jehovah: OT Phrase 8.)

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                         Greek: article (a few texts omit the article)


*In the Old Testament the Levites serving before the arc of the covenant in the temple of God would minister in the name of the LORD. See Deuteronomy 8:5, 7. As Reverend Baines notes very clearly in How to Heal the Sick and Cast out Devils, the revelation concerning healing in James is addressed to Israel, the twelve tribes that are scattered abroad, not to the church. The revelation is not less than what is given to the church but the revelation exceeds the abundance granted to us. In a synagogue of Christian believers run in the dispersion and open to all the Hebrew brethren, the elders of the church were invited to stand in the place of the Levitical priests. Those of Israel lost in the dispersion that followed the razing of the temple could still find their Jehovah God and His power in a gathering of those born of Abraham keeping, through Christ, the traditions of their nation. See 5:15 for context.


James 5:15 And the prayer of *the (the, omitted in the King James Version should be supplied from the Greek) faith shall save the sick, and the LORD (*Jehovah: This is an Old Testament promise) shall raise him up; and if he have committed sins, they shall be forgiven him.

Aramaic: our Lord                                                        Greek: article


*The article, the, from the Greek indicates that it is the prayer of the faith of Jesus Christ that avails. I am reminded of the wonderful story Dr. Wierwille used to share about praying for the Hindu man that did not believe in Dr.’s Jesus. The man was healed by Dr.’s prayer of faith anyhow. Why? Because the Hindu man believed that God would heal him if the holy man of God, Dr. Wierwille prayed for him. This is the same principle. During the diaspora after the destruction of the Hebrew temple, a Jew could attend a synagogue of Jewish Christians and find their heritage of deliverance from Jehovah God in the name of Jesus Christ. .


1 Peter 1:3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which according to his abundant mercy hath begotten us again unto a lively hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead,

Aramaic: our Lord                                                        Greek: article


1 Peter 1:25 But the word of the LORD (the Hebrew Old Testament has God. The Aramaic New Testament has God. But if the LXX and the matching Greek New Testament is correct, then Jehovah, OT phrase 21,) endureth for ever. And this is the word which by the gospel is preached unto you.

Aramaic: God                                                               Greek: no article

Latin:      Lord


1 Peter 2:3 If so be ye have tasted that the LORD (Jehovah: Psalm 34:8) is gracious.

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                         Greek: article


1 Peter 2:13 Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake: whether it be to the king, as supreme;

Aramaic: God                                                               Greek: article

Latin:      God


1 Peter 2:18 Servants, be subject to your masters (despotes:  slave owners) with all fear; not only to the good and gentle, but also to the froward.

Aramaic: your lords, not a synonym for despotes

Latin:      lord not a synonym for despotes


1 Peter 3:6 Even as Sara obeyed Abraham, calling him lord: whose daughters ye are, as long as ye do well, and are not afraid with any amazement.

Aramaic: my lord                                                         Greek: no article


1 Peter 3:12 For the eyes of the LORD (Jehovah: Cited— Psalm 34:15-16) are over the righteous, and his ears are open unto their prayers: but the face of the LORD (Jehovah: OT Phrase 12) is against them that do evil.

1st Aramaic: LORDemp                                                                                                        Greek: no article

2nd Aramaic: LORDemp                                                                                                      Greek: no article


1 Peter 3:15 But sanctify the LORD God (OT phrase 4*) in your hearts: and be ready always to give an answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you with meekness and fear:

Aramaic: LORDsprm Christ                                              Greek: no article

Vulgate:  Lord Christ


*Although there is significant Greek manuscript evidence to support the Stevens text: SCR, BYZ, STE have "God," there is far more evidence to support the readings of N-A G, L, T, Tr, A, N that have the Lord Christ. The Vulgate, the Aramaic and the Coptic also read the Lord Christ. The overall context of the epistle, as to the Judeans scattered abroad –I Peter 1:1, and with the abundant references to the Old Testament, seem to fit more clearly with Jehovah God—OT phrase 4. Still, the context has focused on speaking of the hope that is in each believer. The reason of the hope is in us is, "Christ in you the hope of glory." The only other use of the phrase the Lord Christ appears in Colossians 3:24.


1 Peter 5:3 Neither as being lords (2634 katakurieuo, kata-kurios, being overlords, or lording it over) over God's heritage, but being ensamples to the flock.

Aramaic: lordssprm                                                                                                                 Greek: a verb form, no article

Latin:      simple verb form of lord


2 Peter 1:2 Grace and peace be multiplied unto you through the knowledge of God, and of Jesus our Lord,

Aramaic: our Lord                                                        Greek: article


2 Peter 1:8 For if these things be in you, and abound, they make you that ye shall neither be barren nor unfruitful in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Aramaic: our Lord                                                        Greek: article


2 Peter 1:11 For so an entrance shall be ministered unto you abundantly into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.

Aramaic: our Lord                                                        Greek: article


2 Peter 1:14 Knowing that shortly I must put off this my tabernacle, even as our Lord Jesus Christ hath shewed me.

Aramaic: our Lord                                                        Greek: article


2 Peter 1:16 For we have not followed cunningly devised fables, when we made known unto you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but were eyewitnesses of his majesty.

Aramaic: our Lord                                                        Greek: article


2 Peter 2:1 But there were false prophets also among the people, even as there shall be false teachers among you, who privily shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord (despotes: the Lord Jesus Christ is the owner of the church since he redeemed us with his own blood) that bought them, and bring upon themselves swift destruction.

Aramaic: Aramaic: Lordemp                                            Greek: despotes

Latin: lord, not a synonym of despotes


2 Peter 2:9 The LORD (The context is the story of Lot, before our Lord was born.) knoweth how to deliver the godly out of temptations, and to reserve the unjust unto the day of judgment to be punished:

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                         Greek: no article


2 Peter 2:11 Whereas angels, which are greater in power and might, bring not railing accusation against them before the LORD (Jehovah. G2, L, Tr-b and Harklean Aramaic omit before the Lord; Magiera’s translation is the best: “bring on themselves the judgment of blasphemy from the LORD”).

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                        Greek: no article

Latin:      omits before the Lord


2 Peter 2:20 For if after they have escaped the pollutions of the world through the knowledge of the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, they are again entangled therein, and overcome, the latter end is worse with them than the beginning.

Aramaic: our Lord                                                        Greek: article

Latin:      our Lord


2 Peter 3:2 That ye may be mindful of the words which were spoken before by the holy prophets, and of the commandment of us the apostles of the Lord and Saviour:

Aramaic: our Lord                                                        Greek: article


2 Peter 3:8 But, beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, that one day is with the LORD (Jehovah:  Psalm 90:2-4) as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day.

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                         Greek: no article


2 Peter 3:9 The LORD is not slack concerning his promise (the promise of our Lord's coming: 2 Peter 3:4), as some men count slackness; but is longsuffering to us-ward, not willing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance.

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                         Greek: article (Stephens) no article (N/A)


2 Peter 3:10 But the day of the LORD* (Jehovah: OT phrase 15) will come as a thief in the night; in the which the heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat, the earth also and the works that are therein shall be burned up.

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                         Greek: no article


*The day of Christ is a day of rejoicing for the church; the day of the Lord is the day of God's vengeance on the ungodly. See also 2 Peter 3:12: His promise is plainly God's promise. This is the promise the scoffers deride in 3:4, but in the light of which the Godly should live. This coming is the later part of the parousia, Christ coming with his saints. The first part of the parousia is Christ coming for his saints. This Old Testament context is because 2 Peter which is written to the twelve tribes scattered abroad. The day of vengeance and Israel's final inheritance in paradise was proclaimed throughout the Bible; however, the promise of the gathering together is part of the mystery of the church of the one body lately revealed to His apostles and prophets. (see: I Corinthians 15:51-52)


2 Peter 3:15 And account that the longsuffering of our LORD (Jehovah: 2 Peter 3:9, context; N omits our) is salvation; even as our beloved brother Paul also according to the wisdom given unto him hath written unto you (in Hebrews—to the 12 tribes; hence, Jehovah);

Aramaic: LORDemp, (not our)                                         Greek: article (where Lord)

Latin:      agrees with the Stephens text


2 Peter 3:18 But grow in grace, and in the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. To him be glory both now and for ever. Amen.

Aramaic: our Lord                                                        Greek: article


2 John 1:3 Grace be with you, mercy, and peace, from God the Father, and from the Lord (N-A G= L,T,Tr, A omit the Lord) Jesus Christ, the Son of the Father, in truth and love.

Aramaic: our Lord                                                        Stephens: no article

Latin:      omits the Lord and has Christ Jesus


Jude 1:4 For there are certain men crept in unawares, who were before of old ordained to this condemnation, ungodly men, turning the grace of our God into lasciviousness, and denying the only *Lord God (the Stephens has despotes theos, but N-A, G,L,T,Tr, A,N all omit theos.), and our Lord Jesus Christ.

1st Aramaic: Lord (in rare absolute state)                        Greek: despotes

2nd Aramaic: our Lord                                                   Greek: no article

1st Latin:  dominatorem; omits God; 2nd agrees with Stephens


*The Greek phrase despotes theos is never used for Old Testament phrase 4: Jehovah Ellohim. For once, the Latin also uses an extensive form of Lord, Dominatorem, to signify something akin to the Greek despotes, yet it omits God. Oddly, the Aramaic reads “only Lord God” omitting the emphatic form.

In the Greek the article precedes despotes and “our” precedes “Lord;” with God omitted this would make an hendiadys reading “the only lord and master of us Jesus Christ.”

The original reading should be “denying the only Lord (adon) God (see also Revelation 11:4) and the lord of us Jesus Christ. The article would have been omitted before Lord God (as in Lord of heaven and earth) but present with “our Lord Jesus Christ.” Repeating “lord” twice, once of God and once of our Lord must have been confusing for copyists. The placement of only one article could not have helped.

This is not a reference to Jehovah God, but to the Adon God, Lord God. The ungodly men are turning (from –elliptically) the grace of God and denying all moral authority. Hence, they speak evil of dignitaries as they pursue, and encourage others to pursue the lusts of the flesh. To confront this lawlessness disguised as liberty, God’s word points out the eternal dominion of God over all and the Lordship of His Son Jesus Christ at whose name every knee shall bow.


Jude 1:5 I will therefore put you in remembrance, though ye once knew this, how that the LORD (Jehovah: before the birth of Christ. G-, L, Tr-mb, A have Jesus)*, having saved the people out of the land of Egypt, afterward destroyed them that believed not.

Aramaic: God                                                               Greek: many texts omit the article

Vulgate:  Jesus


Jude 1:9 Yet Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil he disputed about the body of Moses, durst not bring against him a railing accusation, but said, The LORD (Jehovah: before the birth of Christ) rebuke thee.

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                         Greek: no article


Jude 1:14 And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying, Behold, the *LORD (Old Testament reference and agreement of Aramaic and Greek) cometh with ten thousands of his saints,

Aramaic: Lordsprm                                                         Greek: no article


*While Enoch could certainly have been prophesying of his lord, as did David, the Young’s Literal Translation of the Greek gives the best sense: “And prophesy also to these did the seventh from Adam -- Enoch -- saying, 'Lo, the Lord did come in His saintly myriads.’”


Jude 1:17 But, beloved, remember ye the words which were spoken before of the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ;

Aramaic: our Lord                                                        Greek: article


Jude 1:21 Keep yourselves in the love of God, looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life.

Aramaic: our Lord                                                        Greek: article


Jude 1:25 To the only wise God our Saviour through Jesus Christ our Lord (N-A add: “through Jesus Christ the Lord of us”), be glory and majesty, dominion and power, both now and ever. Amen.

Aramaic: has through Jesus Christ our Lord                Greek: article (where “through...Lord”)

Latin:      has through Jesus Christ our Lord


Revelation 1:8 I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the LORD God (N/A adds “God”) which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.

Aramaic: adds God (LORDemp God)                               Greek: no article

Latin:      agrees with N/A


* In all of the church epistles it is written, "grace and peace be unto you from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ." In Rev. 1:4 "He which is…" = God. After the description of the seven spirits, Jesus Christ our Lord is included as per the epistles in Rev. 1:5. Hence the two descriptive phrases, "He which is…" & and "the Almighty" both refer to the Alpha and Omega and therefore to God. Hence, Lord = the Almighty who is the Alpha & Omega. See also Rev. 4:8; 11:17


Revelation 4:8 And the four beasts had each of them six wings about him; and they were full of eyes within: and they rest not day and night, saying, Holy, holy, holy, LORD God Almighty, which was, and is, and is to come.

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                         Greek: no article


Revelation 4:11 Thou art worthy, O *LORD (Jehovah:  context from 4:8 is all God who sits on the white throne. Also, God is the Creator. N/A adds “the God of us”), to receive glory and honour and power: for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were created.

Aramaic: our Lord and our God                                   Greek: no article

Latin:      adds our God (O LORD our God)—agrees with Nestle-Aland


*The Stephens text may be correct. Both the Aramaic and the Greek texts that add “our God” depart from the usual use of the emphatic form (Aramaic) and omission of the article (Greek).


Revelation 6:10 And they cried with a loud voice, saying, How long, O Lord (despotes:  refers to the Lord Jesus Christ; see Revelation 6:1 for the immediate context and see Revelation 3:7 for the other use of the title “holy and true” as it pertains to our Lord Jesus Christ), holy and true, dost thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth?

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                                                                                 Greek: article with despotes


Revelation 7:14 And I said unto him, Sir (lord), thou knowest. And he said to me, These are they which came out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb.

Aramaic: my lord                                                         Greek: no article (vocative)

Latin:      my lord


Revelation 11:4 These are the two olive trees, and the two candlesticks standing before the Lord of the earth. (N-A, G, L, T, Tr, A, N have the Lord. The Vulgate and the Aramaic also have Lord.).

Aramaic: Lord: (absolute in genitive construction)       Greek: article

Latin:      Lord, agrees with N/A


*If Lord this is a part of one of God's titles. God is, Lord: not Jehovah, adown: of the earth in Rev. 1:5; see also Gen. 24:3, Joshua 3:11,13, and Zech. 6:5. Jesus Christ is the ruler, archon, of the kings of all the earth. Although lord is often used in the New Testament Greek scriptures to represent the Old Testament Hebrew Jehovah, this is an excellent example of how the Greek word also retains its linguistic meaning. The use of lord here is parallel not to Jehovah at all, but to the Hebrew adown. This is again more evidence that the original, inspired word of God, must have had a system, or a road map to those uses of “lord” that meant Jehovah and those that paralleled the Old Testament adown. Again, there is evidence that earlier manuscripts had fewer uses of the nomina sacred, or special lettering, abbreviations, for “Divine Names.” Perhaps the earliest manuscripts used only KY with a bar to represent the Old Testament name for God. This use of “lord” in the Greek with an article suggests, as it should, that here “lord” is being used not as a proper noun, but as a title, or common noun.


Revelation 11:8 And their dead bodies shall lie in the street of the great city, which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified.

Aramaic: their lord (Ethleridge – our lord)                                Greek: article

Latin:      their lord


Revelation 11:15 And the seventh angel sounded; and there were great voices in heaven, saying, The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our LORD (Jehovah by way of the immediate context.), and of his Christ; and he shall reign for ever and ever.

Aramaic: our God*                                                       Greek: the lord of us


* Tichendorf only mentions a couple of patristic readings, one in Greek and another in Latin that support this reading of the Aramaic Peshitta. Of course God makes more sense with our. Our Jehovah exists nowhere in the Old Testament, and our lord’s and his Christ makes little sense at all. He usually notes Peshitta variants. It is unclear why he did not in this case.


Revelation 11:17 Saying, We give thee thanks, O LORD God Almighty, which art, and wast, and art to come; because thou hast taken to thee thy great power, and hast reigned.

Aramaic: LORDemp,                                                       Greek: no article


Revelation 14:13 And I heard a voice from heaven saying unto me, Write, Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord (N.T. Phrase 1) from henceforth: Yea, saith the Spirit, that they may rest from their labours; and their works do follow them.

Aramaic: our Lord; Mosul’s 1898 edition: God Greek: no article


Revelation 15:3 And they sing the song of Moses the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb, saying, Great and marvellous are thy works, LORD God Almighty; just and true are thy ways, thou King of saints.

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                         Greek: no article (vocative)


Revelation 15:4 Who shall not fear thee, O LORD (Jehovah: judgments of nations from God through Christ. G- omits.), and glorify thy name? for thou only art holy: for all nations shall come and worship before thee; for thy judgments are made manifest.

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                         Greek: no article (vocative)


Revelation 16:5 And I heard the angel of the waters say, Thou art righteous, O LORD (If Lord should be included, then Jehovah. Revelation 16:5 refers to God per 16:7; however, there are many textual variations: N-A, G, L, T, Tr, A, N omit O' Lord. Some include and shalt be, others don't.), which art, and wast, and shalt be, because thou hast judged thus.

Aramaic: omits O’ Lord                                                Greek: no article (vocative where Lord)

Latin:      texts are split


Revelation 16:7 And I heard another out of the altar say, Even so, LORD God Almighty, true and righteous are thy judgments.

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                         Greek: no article (vocative)


Revelation 17:14 These shall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome them: for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings: and they that are with him are called, and chosen, and faithful.

1st   Aramaic: Lord (construct state sing.)                       Greek: no article

2nd Aramaic: Lordships (daleth+emphatic state+pl)*      Greek: no article (genitive plural)


*The use of double daleths and the construct state is a function of the verb “to be.” This is a very dramatic passage. Our Lord is already, by the resurrection of the dead, marked out as the Son of God with power. God has already given him a name that is above every name, and he shall put all things under his feet.


Revelation 18:8 Therefore shall her plagues come in one day, death, and mourning, and famine; and she shall be utterly burned with fire: for strong is the LORD (Jehovah) God who judgeth her.

Aramaic: *LORDemp                                                       Greek: no article          


*Magierra and TWI text omit God, but there is no cited evidence that the Peshitta omits. However, there is a little patristic evidence and a few minuscules that also omit. If God is omitted, this is a possible reference to Christ; however, the absence of the Greek article suggests that “Lord” is being treated as a proper noun. Hence, “strong is Jehovah God who judges her” is the probable reading.


Revelation 19:1 And after these things I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, belong to (The Stephens has unto the LORD our God, but N-A, G, L, T, Tr, A, N omit the Lord) our God:

Aramaic: omits the Lord                                              Greek: no article (where Lord)

Vulgate:  omits the Lord


Revelation 19:6 And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia: for the LORD God omnipotent reigneth.

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                         Greek: no article

Latin:      Lord our God


Revelation 19:16 And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.

1st   Aramaic: Lord (absolute in genitive construction)     Greek: no article

2nd Aramaic: Lordships (daleth+emphatic+plural)          Greek: no article (genitive plural)


Revelation 21:22 And I saw no temple therein: for the LORD God Almighty and the Lamb are the temple of it.

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                         Greek: no article


Revelation 22:5 And there shall be no night there; and they need no candle, neither light of the sun; for the LORD God (Jehovah: OT phrase 4) giveth them light: and they shall reign for ever and ever.

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                         Greek: no article


Revelation 22:6 And he said unto me, These sayings are faithful and true: and the LORD God (Jehovah: OT phrase 4) of the holy prophets sent his angel to shew unto his servants the things which must shortly be done.

Aramaic: LORDemp                                                         Greek: article


Revelation 22:20 He which testifieth these things saith, Surely I come quickly. Amen. Even so, come, Lord Jesus.

Aramaic: Lordsprm                                                         Greek: no article (vocative)


Revelation 22:21 The grace of our (N/A omits “our”) Lord Jesus Christ (NT Phrase 5) be with you all. Amen.

Aramaic: our Lord                                                        Greek: article